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Paper II – Biochemistry & Pharmacology

Subject Title:Biochemistry
Total hours:60
Total Hours/ Week:2 hours
Method of Assessment:Written

  • Nutrition [7 Hours]
    • Introduction, Importance of nutrition, Calorific values,
    • Respiratory quotient – Definition, and its significance
    • Energy requirement of a person –
    • Basal metabolic rate: Definition, Normal values, factor affecting BMR
    • Special dynamic action of food
    • Physical activities – Energy expenditure for various activities.
    • Calculation of energy requirement of a person
    • Balanced diet, Recommended dietary allowances
    • Role of carbohydrates in diet: Digestible carbohydrates and dietary fibers
    • Role of lipids in diet.
    • Role of proteins in diet: Quality of proteins – Biological value, net protein utilization, Nutritional aspects of proteins-essential and non essential amino acids. Nitrogen balance
    • Nutritional disorders
  • Carbohydrate Chemistry [3 Hours]: Definition, general classification with examples, Glycosidic bond Structures, composition, sources, properties and functions of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides. Glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides)
  • Lipid Chemistry [3 Hours]
    • Definition, general classification
    • Definition, classification, properties and functions of Fatty acids, Triglycerol, Phospholipids, Cholesterol, Essential fatty acids and their importance
    • Lipoproteins: Definition, classification, properties, Sources and function, Ketone bodies.
  • Amino-acid Chemistry [3 Hours]: Amino acid chemistry: Definition, Classification, Peptide bonds Peptides: Definition, Biologically important peptides Protein chemistry: Definition, Classification, Functions of proteins,
  • Enzymes [3 Hours]: Definition, Active site, Cofactor (Coenzyme, Activator), Proenzyme. Classification with examples, Factors effecting enzyme activity, Enzyme inhibition and significance, Isoenzymes, Diagnostic enzymology (clinical significance of enzymes).
  • Nucleotide and Nucleic acid Chemistry [2 Hours]: Nucleotide chemistry: Nucleotide composition, functions of free nucleotides in body. Nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) chemistry: Difference between DNA and RNA, Structure of DNA (Watson and Crick model), Functions of DNA. Structure and functions of tRNA, rRNA, mRNA. Replication, Transcription & Translation.
  • Digestion and Absorption [ 3 Hours]: General characteristics of digestion and absorption, Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Disorders of digestion and absorption – Lactose intolerance,
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism [in brief only] [5 Hours]
    • Introduction, Glycolysis – Aerobic, Anaerobic Citric acid cycle, Substrate level phosphorylation
    • Glycogen metabolism – Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Metabolic disorders glycogen, Gluconeogenesis, Cori cycle
    • Hormonal regulation of glucose, Glycosuria, Diabetes mellitus,
  • Lipid Metabolism [ in brief only] [ 5 Hours]
    • Introduction to lipid metabolism, Lipolysis, Oxidation of fatty acids -oxidation of fatty acids, Lipogenesis – Denovo synthesis of fatty acids, chain elongation, desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, fat metabolism in adipose tissues Ketone body metabolism: Ketone body formation (ketogenesis), utilization (ketolysis), ketosis, Rothera’s test
    • Cholesterol metabolism: synthesis, degradation, cholesterol transport
    • Hypercholesterolemia and its effects (atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases) Hypocholesterolemic agents, Common hyperlipoproteinemia, Fatty liver
  • Amino acid and Protein Metabolism [in brief only][3 Hours]
    • Catabolism of amino acids – Introduction, transamination, deamination, Fate of ammonia, transport of ammonia, Urea cycle
    • Specialized products formed from amino acids – from glycine, arginine, methionine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.
  • Vitamins [7 Hours]
    • Definition, classification according to solubility,
    • Individual vitamins – Sources, Coenzyme forms, functions, RDA, digestion, absorption and transport, deficiency and toxicity
  • Mineral Metabolism [ in brief only] [ 2 Hours]: Definition, Sources, RDA, functions, disorder of Individual minerals – Calcium, phosphate, iron, Magnesium, fluoride, selenium, molybdenum, copper. Phosphate, calcium and iron in detail
  • Hormone [4 Hours]: Definition, classification, Mechanism of hormone action. Receptors, signal transduction, second messengers and cell function, Hormones of Pitutary gland, Hypothalamus, Thyroid gland, Adrenal gland, Ovary & Testes.
  • Acid-Base balance [2 Hours]: Acids, bases and buffers, pH. Buffer systems of the body, bicarbonate buffer system, Role of lungs and kidneys in acid base balance, Acid base imbalance
  • Water balance [1 Hour]: Water distribution in the body, Body water, water turnover, Regulation of water balance: role of ADH and thirst centre
  • Electrolyte balance[ 1 Hour]
    • Osmolarity. Distribution of electrolytes
    • Electrolyte balance: Role of aldosterone, rennin angiotensin system and ANF
  • Clinical Biochemistry [4 Hours]: Normal levels of blood and urine constituents, Relevance of blood and urine levels of Glucose, Urea, Uric acid, Creatinine, Calcium, Phosphates, pH and Bicarbonate. Liver function tests, Renal function tests Instumentation, Spectrophotometry, Electrophoresis, Elisa and RIA
  • Biochemistry of cancer & tumour markers [1 Hour]
  • Advance molecular biological technique PCR [1 Hour]
Recommended Textbooks:
  • Fundamentals of Biochemistry by U. Satyanarayana, U Chakrapani.
  • Manipal manual of Clinical Biochemistry.
Reference Books:
  • Fundamentals of Biochemistry by A.C. Deb Publisher : New central book agency
  • T.B. of Medical Biochemistry by MN Chatterjee, Rana Shinde.
  • T.B. of Biochemistry by DM Vasudevan, shreekumari S.
  • MURRAY [ROBERT KK], Harper’s Bio Chemistry Ed 24, Prentice Hall. 1996
  • RAMAKRISHNA [S], PRASANNA [KG], RAJAN [R], Text Book of Medical Biochemistry.
  • VASUDEVAN [DM] and SREE KUMARI [S], Text Book of BioChemistry for Medical students.
  • DAS [Debajyothi], Biochemistry.
  • LEHININGER [Albert] et. al., Principles of Biochemistry.
  • ORTEN [James M] and NEUHAUS [OHO.W]. Human Biochemistry.
  • Strayer [LUBERT], Biochemistry.
  • DEVLIN [Thomas M], Biochemistry with Clinical Correlation.

Subject Title:Pharmacology
Total hours:60
Total Hours/ Week:2 hours/Week
Method of Assessment:Written
Course Description:
This course introduces the student to basic pharmacology of common drugs used, their importance in the overall treatment including Physiotherapy. The student after completing the course will be able to understand the general principles of drug action and the handling of drugs by the body. The student will be aware of the contribution of both drug and physiotherapy factors in the outcome of treatment


  • General Pharmacology [5 Hours]: Introduction, Definitions, Classification of drugs, Sources of drugs, Routes of drug administration, Distribution of drugs, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Factors modifying drug response, Adverse effects.
  • Autonomic Nervous system [5 hours]: General considerations – The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems, Receptors, Somatic Nervous System, Cholinergic and Anti-Cholinergic drugs, Adrenergic and Adrenergic blocking drugs, Peripheral muscle relaxants.
  • Cardiovascular Pharmacology [10 Hours]
    • Drugs Used in the Treatment of Heart Failure: Digitalis, Diuretics, Vasodilators, ACE inhibitors
    • Antihypertensive Drugs: Diuretics, Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, ACE Inhibitors, Central Acting Alpha Agonists, Peripheral Alpha Antagonists, Direct acting Vasodilators, Antiarrhythmic Drugs
    • Drugs Used in the Treatment of Vascular Disease and Tissue Ischemia : Vascular Disease, Hemostasis Lipid-Lowering agents, Antithrombotics, Anticoagulants and Thrombolytics Ischemic Heart Disease – Nitrates, Beta-Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Cerebral Ischemia
    • Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Neuropharmacology [8 Hours]: Introduction, Alcohols, Sedatives and Hypnotics, Anti-convulsants, Analgesics and Antipyretics, General anesthetic, Local anesthetic, Antianxiety Drugs: Benzodiazepines, Other Anxiolytics, Very brief introduction of Psycho Therapeutics: Treatment of Mood Disorders (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Tricyclic Antidepressants, Atypical Antidepressants, Lithium, Antipsychotic drugs).
  • Disorders of Movement [4 Hours]: Drugs used in Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease Antiepileptic Drugs, Spasticity and Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
  • Inflammatory/Immune Diseases [14 Hours]
    • Non-narcotic Analgesics and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Acetaminophen, NSAIDs, Aspirin, Nonaspirin NSAIDs, drug Interactins with NSAIDs
    • Glucocorticoids: Pharmacological Uses of Glucocorticoids, adverse effects, Physiologic Use of Glucocorticoids
    • Drugs Used in Treatment of Arthritic Diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Gout
    • Drugs Used in the Treatment of Neuromuscular Immune/Inflmmatory Diseases: Myasthena gravis, Haematinics, Vitamin B, Iron.
    • Very brief introduction of: idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies, systemic lupus Erythmatosus, Scleroderma, Demyelinating Disease. Haematinics, Vitamin B, Iron.
    • Respiratory Pharmacology : Upper Respiratory Tract infections-sinusitis, Laryngitis, Pharyngitis, Bronchial Asthma, COPD- effects of prolonged drug administration, Cough suppressant
  • Digestion and Metabolism [8 Hours]
    • Gastrointestinal Pharmacology: Vomiting, Peptic Ulcer Disease, Constipation, Diarrhea
    • Drugs Used in Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemics
    • Disorder of thyroid hormone: drugs for hypo and hyperthyroid
    • Very brief introduction of sex hormone and hormonal contraceptive
  • Geriatrics [3 Hours]: Pharmacology and the geriatric Population: Adverse effects of special concern in the Elderly, Dementia, Postural hypotension
  • Antibiotics [3 hours]: Definition, choice of agents, resistance, prophylactic groups, Very brief introduction of drugs name, mechanism, uses and specific toxicity
Recommended Textbooks:
  • Essential of Medical Pharmacology by K. D. Tripathi
  • Text book of Medical Pharmacology by Padmaja Udaykumar
  • Pharmacology by N. Murugesh
  • Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics by Satoskar.
Reference Books:
  • Clinical Pharmacology – D.R Laurence, Pn Ben net, MJ Brown
  • Goodman’s & Gilman’s the Pharmacological basis of therapeutics
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South Gujarat Medical Education & Research Center
SPB (BPT & MPT) Physiotherapy College,
Ugat-Bhesan Road, Mora Bhagal,
Rander Road,

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Phone: +91 95373 69696