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Paper-IV – Research Methodology and Biostatistics

Total hours:75

At the end of the course, the candidate will acquire the knowledge of:
  • To become familiar with the Types and Criteria of Research in physiotherapy
  • To understand the concepts, Design problems & sampling techniques of research
  • To develop the skill needed to read publish research critically
  • To develop the skills of planning to conduct research
  • To develop the skills to write research reports
  • Acquire skills of reviewing literature, formulating a hypothesis, collect data, writing research proposal etc
  • Describe the importance & use of biostatistics for research work
  • Research in Physiotherapy
    • Introduction
    • Research for Physiotherapist: Why? How? And When?
    • Research – Definition, concept, purpose, approaches
    • Internet sites for Physiotherapist
      • Research Fundamentals
        • Types of variables
        • Reliability & Validity
        • Drawing Tables, graphs, master chart etc
      • Writing a Research Proposal
        • Defining a problem
        • Hypothesis: function of hypothesis in quantitative research
        • Types of hypothesis, characteristics of testable hypothesis, wording of the hypothesis
        • Review of Literature
        • Formulating a question, Operational Definition
        • Inclusion & Exclusion criteria
        • Forming groups
        • Data collection & analysis
        • Results, Interpretation, conclusion, discussion
        • Informed Consent
        • Limitations
      • Research Design
        • Qualitative and Quantitative research designs
          • Difference between qualitative and quantitative designs
        • Experimental design
          • Quasi experimental research; advantages and disadvantages of quasi experiments Non experimental design
          • Controlled trials
          • Parallel or concurrent controls
          • Randomized
          • Non randomized
          • Sequential controls
          • Self controlled
          • Cross over
          • External controls
          • Studies with no controls
        • Observational Study design
          • Descriptive or case series
          • Case control studies (retrospective)
          • Cross sectional studies, surveys
          • Cohort studies (prospective)
          • Historical Cohort studies
        • Meta analyses
      • Population and sample
        • Definition of population and sample
        • Types of sampling
        • Sample size determination and calculation
        • Sample rationale
        • Non-probability sampling ; convenience sampling , quota sampling, purposive sampling, advantages and disadvantages of non probability sampling
        • Probability sampling; Simple random sampling, stratified random sampling,
        • Cluster sampling, systematic sampling, advantages and disadvantages of probability sampling
      • Data collection methods
        • scales and techniques of psychological measures
        • Research reliability, validity and criteria for assessing, measuring the tools,
        • Presentation of data
        • Analysis and interpretation of research data
        • Role of computers
        • Pilot study
      • Interpretation of statistical results
        • Interpreting significant and non significant results
        • Discussion and conclusion of obtained results
        • Guidelines to interpret and critique research results
      • Writing research for publication
        • Guidelines to publish a research paper and its contents
      • Presenting a research report
        • Writing the report
        • Documentation
        • Details of the study
        • Arrangement of report
        • Practice – Presentation of study for discussion
        • Method of teaching – lecture and discussion- Seminars and practices.
      • Research Ethics
        • Importance of Ethics in Research, Ethical issues in human subjects research, Ethical principles that govern research with human subjects
        • Components of an ethically valid informed consent for research

      At the end of the course, the candidate will acquire the knowledge of:
      • Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative variables
      • Know how to summarize information using mean, median, standard deviation, quartiles and inter-quartile range
      • Understand the key concept of probability
      • Know when and how to use the binomial distribution
      • Understand the central limit theorem
      • Know when and how to use the t distribution
      • Calculate and interpret the confidence intervals
      • Understanding the meaning of P values in significance testing
      • Learn the use of Chi- Square test
      • Calculating and interpreting a correlation coefficient
      • Understand the concept of regression
      • Biostatistics
        • Introduction
        • Definition
        • Types
        • Application in Physiotherapy
      • Data
        • Definition
        • Types
        • Presentation
        • Collection methods
        • Various types of graphs, obtaining graphs using statistical software’s like excel
      • Measures of central value
        • Arithmetic mean, median, mode, Relationship between them
        • Partitioned values- Quartiles, Deciles, Percentiles
        • Graphical determination
      • Measures of Dispersion
        • Range
        • Mean Deviation
        • Standard Deviation
      • Normal Distribution Curve
        • Properties of normal distribution
        • Standard normal distribution
        • Transformation of normal random variables.
        • Inverse transformation
        • Normal approximation of Binomial distribution.
      • Correlation analysis
        • Bivariate distribution
        • Scatter Diagram
        • Coefficient of correlation
        • Calculation & interpretation of correlation coefficient
        • T-test, Z-test, P-value
      • Regression analysis
        • Lines of regression
        • Calculation of Regression coefficient
      • Sampling
        • Methods of Sampling
        • Sampling distribution
        • Standard error
        • Types I & II error
      • Probability (in Brief)
        • Probability and sampling
        • Probability as a mathematical system
        • Population and samples
        • Sampling distribution
        • Sampling methods
        • Point and interval estimation for proportion mean
        • Hypothesis testing, simple test of significance
        • Inferential technique: normal
      • Hypothesis Testing
        • Null Hypothesis
        • Alternative hypothesis
        • Acceptance & rejection of null Hypothesis
        • Level of significance
      • Parametric & Non parametric tests
        • Chi square test
        • Mann-Whitney U test
        • Wilcoxon Signed test
        • Kruskal-Wallis test
        • Friedman test
        • T-test/student T test
        • Analysis of variance
        • Standard errors of differences
      • Learn SPSS software application and Graph Software application. [Not for Exam].
      Recommended Books for Reference:
      • Methods in Biostatistics – Mahajan B. K, Jaypee.
      • Research Methodology – Kothari C. R, Vishwa prakashan.
      • How to Write a Thesis – Teitalbaum.
      • Statistical Methods for Professional Education courses – Gupta S. P, Sultan Chand.
      • Rehabilitation Research: Principles & Applications – Domholdt, Elizabeth.
      • Writing Case Reports – How to manual for Clinicians – Mc Ewen Irene, APTA.
      • The Researching Therapist: A Practical Guide to Planning, Performing and Communicating Research by Sue Jenkins, Connie J. Price and Leon Straker (Nov 17, 1997)
      • Research Methods for Clinical Therapists – Hicks Carolyn, Churchill Livingstone.
      • Elements of Research in Physical therapy – Currier D, Williams and Wilkins.
      • Qualitative Research for Occupational and Physical Therapists: A Practical Guide by Christine Carpenter and Melinda Suto (Feb 12, 2008)
      • First Steps in Research: A Pocketbook for Healthcare Students (Physiotherapy Pocketbooks) by Stuart B. Porter (May 30, 2008)
      • Barbara; statistical methods for health care research
      • Research Methods: A Framework for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice by Wendy L. Hurley, Craig R. Denegar and Jay Hertel (Oct 25, 2010)
For more details about SPB Physiotherapy College & our various services feel free to call us directly

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South Gujarat Medical Education & Research Center
SPB (BPT & MPT) Physiotherapy College,
Ugat-Bhesan Road, Mora Bhagal,
Rander Road,

Email: [email protected]
Phone: +91 95373 69696